Quaker Theology - Issue #5 - Autumn 2001Crossroads of Western Quakerism in Africa
Robert Juma Wafula
For One to Understand the History of a Place,
One Must Know the People Involved
The history of the foundation of the Quaker movement in East Africa is straightforward and easy to understand. At least is seems so, basing oneself on face value research. But in reality, with its combination of a variety of theological ideals, it is a complex one.
One cannot comprehend African Quakerism unless one studies how Western Quaker theological ideas have changed and shaped the African peoples life style. Despite the fact that it is a carryover religious practice engraved in Western culture, Quakerism has become a part of our modern social life. I use "our" because as an African, I happen to be a descendant product of Western theological metamorphosis.
It Takes One Person to Have an Idea, One Idea to Have an Impact,
And One People to Make a Difference
It was Arthur Benton Chilson, born on June 16, 1872 at LeGrand, Iowa, who conceived the idea of exporting Quakerism to East Africa. Influenced by Willis R. Hotchkiss who had just returned from Africa, Arthurs idea was incubated at Cleveland Friends Bible Institute where he was enrolled as a student (1898). The Institute was then under the able management of Walter and Emma B. Malone. (It was later moved to Canton, Ohio and changed its name to the present Malone College, after its founders). Arthur shared the conceived idea with his colleague, Edgar T. Hole, also enrolled at the Institute. The former had also nursed the urge of being a missionary abroad (Chilson, 10).
United in mind and in spirit, and sharp in theological intellect, the three young men began to map out plans for the establishment of what later came to be known as Friends Africa Industrial Mission (FAIM).
Under the wise counsel of the Malones, the valiant trio was made ready with blessings from a group of Friends and well-wishers gathered in Cleveland Friends Meeting House. Arthur Chilson gave a moving speech/sermon drawing his text from Psalm 91. One outstanding remark was noted that day, "In the plan of God, nothing happens. Gods plans move smoothly and according to order." Arthur felt that as they went out, with their trust and confidence in "one who never failed nor been late in fulfilling His (Gods) plans," God would keep them, guide them, uphold them, sustain them, and let nothing come or happen to them that was not for the good of Gods glory (Chilson, 10).
On April 23, 1902, in the witness of the Malones and a number of Brooklyn Friends in New York City, Arthur Chilson, Edgar Hole, and Willis Hotchkiss were on board the St. Paul Steamship bound for London. Their destination was Mombasa, East Africa. In his diary marked that day, Arthur wrote, "I bless God for His multiplied blessings and the honor He has bestowed me in appointing me a representative of His to bring His message of hope to the hopeless ones of Africa. It seems too good to be true that at last after years of waiting, I am on my way to help start an industrial mission in Africa" (Chilson, 10).
Just like any other evangelistic missionary, Arthurs perception of Africa was not any different from the Western world stereotype. To him the African people were hopeless simply because their beliefs and worship of God were different from the Western style. And it is amazing that Arthur could judge his audience in this category even before he got to meet them.
In his continued diary inscription, Arthur Chilson claimed to have been bound by the everlasting arm of God and his heart was full of Gods glory. However, the pain of leaving his loved ones and the country he cherished all his life could be felt from a distance, "for it may be that I will never see them again here, yet I would not exchange places with any of them" (Chilson, 10). This was the most ambivalent moment for him. Arthurs feelings bring to the memory the feelings of Jesus Christ when he said to his own nuclear family that those who did the will of God in Heaven were his mother and brothers and sisters (Matthew 12:46-50). Arthurs family situation can also be compared to the agony of abandonment for Jesus family and his friends, more especially when he told his disciples that "where I am going you cannot follow me, but you will follow later" and that they were not ready to drink of the cup he was about to partake (John 13:36b; Matthew 20:22).
On May 3, 1902 Arthur Chilson, Willis Hotchkiss, and Edgar Hole attended Dublin (Ireland) Yearly Meeting. Spending time in London, they met with Bishop Taylor, an Anglican bishop in Africa, who gave them tips about the colonial government, the African people, and what to do and what to expect at the port of entry. On June 16, 1902 they boarded Bundersrath steamer at Naples. And like St. Paul, Chilson and his team sailed past Stromboli, a volcanic island, and Crete. They traversed the eighty miles from Port Said to Suez and the Red Sea (Chilson, 15).
And on June 24, 1902, the trio touched anchor in Mombasa, a major port of entry in what was then known as British East Africa, now Kenya. In his diary on this day, Arthur wrote, "I feel like I am getting near home now, for Africa is more home than any place on earth, for my life work is here, be it long or short." After setting his foot on the African soil, for the first time Arthur saw the people whom he had been reading and hearing about. His perception was struck. He confessed: "I believe I know my master better tonight than I ever have before" (Chilson,18).
It took the three missionaries a total of 583 miles by train to arrive at Port Florence (present day Kisumu), on Lake Victoria, from Mombasa. With the help of the native porters who were coerced into the job, they trekked, covering another eighty miles towards the north. And on August 17, 1902, they pitched their tents at Kaimosi, a mission station that later came to claim an important part in the Quaker historical world map (Chilson, 29).
This place was found to have productive soil, springs of fresh abundant water, and river falls. The forest had good indigenous trees for timber. The elevation is 5,300 feet above sea level, thus making it a healthful climate especially for the Western expatriates. The temperatures ranged from 48 to 98 degrees Fahrenheit.
A people who lived in this area were described to have been the most needy on earth yet they never complained or went on begging. They wore no clothes and lived in huts with their cattle but yet were healthy and not ashamed. They had no written language but yet were rich in oral tradition. These people were very religious in all aspects of life. They had a knowledge of God, the ultimate reality in their own understanding.
About 858 acres of land were purchased of the British government. (Kenya was still a British colony). Much of this land was forested. Later a leasehold of 40 acres of timberland was acquired (Foreign Mission Work of American Friends, 76).
Primary Objectives The Sin Question
Every enterprise, as is a well-known fact, has to have objectives before its establishment. Before arriving on the point of discussing the main objectives, questions pop out in ones mind. How different were the missionary plan designs from those of the secular white colonists and Arab merchants in the region? Were there any commonalities between the missionary and colonial approaches towards the African natives? Of course the missionary enterprise was a religious one. But then, what was it to do with a people who already had a knowledge of God, the Supreme Being? Was it meant to get the African to exchange his religion for the American and was it to admittedly assume that the white mans religion was better than the black Africans? Was it that the white mans God was more civilized and was to be introduced to the African man so he could discard the uncivilized and savage African God? Or was the enterprise simply meant to civilize the African man, to get him to wear clothes, to learn to read and write, to build and live in better houses, and to produce more and better crops?
These last were desirable things that bulked large in the missionaries hearts. Willis Hotchkiss would argue this point out to say that it goes deeper (Hotchkiss, 13). He compares the situation of an African with the plight of a paralytic man brought before Jesus to be healed (Matthew 9:1, 2). According to Hotchkiss, the paralytic man was in desperate need for the healing of his physical body. "But," argues Hotchkiss, "he needed something else which was far more fundamental." Jesus words, "Son, thy sins be forgiven thee" go beyond the physical needs and touch on the spiritual and mental faculties. Therefore the paralytic man was not only healed in his physical but in his spiritual being, too.
In the African situation, Hotchkiss main concern was the "sin question which must be settled before we can cope with the multiplied problems of the social and economic need."(Hotchkiss, 13). This therefore brings us to the missionaries main objectives.
The first of these was to evangelize the Gospel of Jesus Christ from Kaimosi, East Africa, to the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa. At least this was Arthur Chilsons dream. But unfortunately he died (January 14, 1939), while on his second missionary enterprise in Central Africa. His undecorated tomb lies in Kibimba, Burundi (Chilson, 236). As a fulfillment of the notion of total ministry, the industrial feature was introduced into the mission work which was also aimed at establishing a solid, self-supporting, self-propagating, and self-sufficient Christian Church in the region. This called for the launching of four departments within the Mission Station: Evangelistic, Educational, Medical, and Industrial. The first chapel, school, and dispensary were crooked umbrella trees under whose shade the African people met for learning, worship, and treatment.
In spite of the fact that the African people were already grounded in the knowledge of the ultimate reality, in the eyes of the missionaries, one crucial aspect was missing that of Christology. Jesus Christ was introduced into the already saturated spiritual life of the African men and women. And I use "spiritual" here in a broader sense. To a native African of the time, life was intrinsically spiritual in the sense that every part of it was in some way related to the spirit world. The native Africans universe, according to the missionaries, was peopled by spirits who dominated the Africans thought and controlled the Africans actions.
To the white missionaries, this was far from the true Christian sense of being holy. The African person in this respect needed the ONE WAY, the illuminating word of Jesus Christ. This point illustrates the obvious fact that the missionaries concept of holiness was limited to belief in Jesus Christ.