The issue facing Unitarian Universalists entering a new century is that we often lack spiritual focus and depth, at a time when increasing numbers of newcomers to our congregations are demanding both. The decades of "Enlightenment" Unitarianism are ending. We can no longer see ourselves as an "alternative to religion," but rather as a powerful religious alternative, one that speaks not only to the intellect but also to the heart and the spirit. We also must learn to see ourselves as a community, a peopleand not simply as individuals who happen to gather on Sundays.
Pietism is a way of life that can be found in many spiritual traditions, a religion of the heart that most church historians believe arose in the Protestantism of Europe during the last decades of the seventeenth century.... As a spiritual tradition, Pietism has focused on living ones faith as much as believing it (orthopraxy as contrasted with orthodoxy),Christian congregations, the spiritual revival of personal and corporate life, and the application of the teachings of Jesus to social problems.
Though the term "Pietist" may have had a negative connotation (someone who is self-righteous and smug or wants to escape the world), the fact is that Pietism was for too long defined by its opponents; today, a wider and richer understanding of Pietism is being discovered in many religious circles.
The title of this book, The Devotional Heart, illustrates how much Pietism influenced the earliest Universalists. It is taken from a quote by the great Universalist theologian Hosea Ballou, who wrote that Pietism means living the life of reverence, of devotion, in the depths:
We must not look for religion in creeds or formularies of human invention. We must look for it in the honest, the pious, the devotional heart; in the heart which truly loves God, loves its [sister and] brother also. The principle of love to God and goodwill to all is true religion.
The remedy for our future is contained in our past.....I began to explore the Pietistic Universalist roots of our tradition, especially as they arose in Pennsylvaniaspecifically under the leadership of Dr. George de Benneville, a "radical Pietist," mystic, teacher, doctor, and student of native American religion and medicine.
Few books have been written on the Pietist heritage in Unitarian Universalism...
Almost all of the major work on Pietism has been done by other religious traditions, especially the Brethren, Moravians, Schwenkfelders, Lutherans, and Methodists. I shall discuss many reasons why Unitarian Universalists have not, until recently, examined the Pietist tradition. By focusing our energies on New England we have missed Pennsylvania. Even when we encountered our evangelical ancestors, we might have been embarrassed. After all, in a movement dominated by the cool spirit of the Enlightenment, what could one do with a horde of evangelical circuit riders, Trinitarians, preachers who spoke from the heart, and people who lived far from Boston in the hills of New England or the rambunctious environs of Philadelphia?
The spiritual renewal of Unitarian Universalism is a matter of ultimate concern. It matters to me whether there are people who call themselves Unitarian Universalists, not just for themselves but for the sake of the world. With all its weaknesses, Unitarian Universalism can model what it means to be a pluralistic spiritual community in a world sadly full of religious hate and deaths. That mission alone should be enough.
I hope that the renewal of Universalism will make us whole as a religious people, enriching our spiritual life and reconnecting us with religious traditions that share some of our Pietist heritage: The Society of Friends, Moravians, Methodists, Lutherans, Schwenkfelders, Brethren, and others. But I also am aware that the recovery of our Pietist heritage brings with it a judgment about our failure as a religious community to keep alive a significant part of our heritage and, in the name of a rational orthodoxy, to deny our own spiritual resources. No people can live in denial without suffering the loss of some dimension of their existence. Our loss has been spiritual depth. Yet it is not too late to recover our spirituality and, since it comes from the genius of religious liberalism, to restate it for a new century.
Because of its relatively obscure place in Unitarian Universalist history, Pietism, the religion of the heart, is seldom understood in its historical context. Within the last few decades, however, in many religious traditions (e.g., Brethren, Lutheran), interest in Pietism has revived, as well as a new willingness to understand its theological, historical, and ethical contributions to contemporary religious life. Unitarian Universalists have seldom been involved in this reassessment, even though Pietism was a major influence on most of the early founders of Universalism, such as John Murray, Hosea Ballou, George de Benneville, and Elhanan Winchester. There have been strong Pietist elements among Unitarians as well, not only the Transcendentalists such as Emerson, but also the founder of American Unitarianism, William Ellery Channing, whose focus on experience and character and a living faith relate to classic Pietist concerns.
It is necessary, therefore, to provide a brief overview of Pietisms development. A grasp of Pietisms roots is especially important for Unitarian Universalists, many of whom have no knowledge of its history or connections to their faith.
If we view Pietism as a tree, its roots would be the early Christian church.... Many Pietists, of whatever time, have had the sense that the church of their time has been corrupted, and the necessary reform required a return to the pattern of the early Christian community. So Pietists might argue that Pietism begins in the New Testament....
The European beginning of Pietism as a distinct historical entity can be dated to the 1675 publication of Phillip Jacob Speners Pia Desideria [Pious Desires]. From Spener, two sometimes distinct but often interrelated Pietistic streams emerge: Churchly Pietism, and Separatist or Radical Pietism. While both shared common concernsthe feeling that the church had strayed from the New Testament, a call to holy living, the sense of Gods presence, and the need for reformthey differed greatly in how reform might be accomplished.
Churchly Pietisms reforms were directed toward the reform of, and not separation from, the church; the goal was to continue and renew Luthers Reformation. Among the leaders after Spener was August Hermann Franke (1663-1727), who put into practice many of Speners reforms. The center of such activity was the University of Halle, Germany, which sent some of the earliest missionaries to America. The major thrust of Separatist or Radical Pietism was to separate from the established churches to form communities more in line with what was considered the New Testament pattern. Gottfried Arnold (1666-1714) was an early leader; in the American colonies, especially Pennsylvania, Separatism influenced many Pietists, including some Universalists.
In terms of personal spiritual development and social impact, the Separatist tradition offers much. The life of George de Benneville shows that his faith bore fruits in the life of the wider community. But de Benneville did not start a church called Universalist; he organized no denomination. Believing in the unity of religion, he did not wish to splinter Christendom into greater divisions. For contemporary Unitarian Universalists, de Benneville provides an excellent example of a role model for personal spiritual growth and wider witness. He is a spiritual hero too long neglected.
For institutional spiritual renewal, Separatism is less helpful to present-day Unitarian Universalists. It provides insights into personal and social witness, but not into the renewal of whole communities. Indeed, excessive introspection coupled with attaching importance to religious experience provides the framework for an individualism that has made the experience of community so difficult. Rather, Churchly Pietism provides a corrective to the Separatist emphasis on personal renewal and a model for future community renewal.
The impact of European Pietism in early America was deep, diverse, and pervasive. From the Churchly Pietist stream came Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg (1711-1787), the early leader of the Lutherans. From the Separatist Pietists came many early leaders: Count Zinzendorf (1700-1760), Moravian; Johann Conrad Beissel (1690-1768), of the Ephrata Cloisters; Johann Kelpius (1673-1708), from a Philadelphia religious community; Ernst Christian Hochman von Hohenua (1670-1721), of the Brethren. Other groups, such as the Society of Friends, Methodists, Shakers, Dunkards, and Baptists were influenced by Pietism.
Pietist roots are deep in the American spiritual tradition, including the earliest expressions of Universalism in New England and the mid-Atlantic states. Pietism had great influence on most of the preachers and leaders of the earliest expressions of Universalism. Dr. George de Benneville (1703-1793), one of the earliest proponents of Universalism in America, is a main link between European Separatist Pietism and American Universalism. Many early Pietists gathered to worship in de Bennevilles Oley, Pennsylvania, house church. All of the early major founders of Universalism were influenced by Pietism: John Murray with Methodist Pietism in England; Elhanan Winchester, who was raised in the Baptist tradition; and Hosea Ballou, Universalisms greatest theologian, who was raised a Baptist.
The colony of Pennsylvania was a hotbed of religious fervor and Pietism. A haven for those who fled religious persecution in Europe, Pennsylvania welcomed many sects, especially German Pietists. New Jersey, too, was settled by people with Pietist leanings. At what is now Barnegat Light, New Jersey, in 1770 John Murray preached the "first Universalist sermon in America," though Pietists from the Ephrata Cloister had probably preached Universalism earlier there. Murray preached his sermon in a small chapel built in 1760 by Thomas Potter, himself probably a Pietistic Universalist, to await a Universalist preacher.
Though the Pietistic influence was strong in the mid-Atlantic states, it also influenced Universalists in New England. The first Universalist society in New England came under some Pietist influence simply because its pastor was John Murray. But elsewhere in New Englandin the "hill country" of New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, and western Massachusettsa lively Pietistic Universalism flourished. Caleb Rich, Isaac Davis, and Adams Streeter became leaders of a radical, revivalistic, Evangelical Universalism that spread rapidly in the rural areas and small townsa development quite different from the more genteel evolution of New England Unitarianism.
The rich and diverse spiritual heritage called Pietism raises the question: Why has it been so neglected by Unitarian Universalists? A few reasons are that our German roots and expression have received less attention than our English roots and expression of Pietism. For example, we know more about John Murray and the rise of Universalism in New England than about George de Benneville and the rise of German Pietists in the Pennsylvania colony. In addition, Unitarian Universalist historians have focused on New England rather than on the mid-Atlantic states. In general, few Unitarian Universalist historians are familiar with Pietism. Furthermore, some early Pietistic Universalists were simply not interested in forming a separate church called Universalist; hence they have been neglected (de Bennevilles notes and some of his journals, for example, are kept by the Schwenkfelders, not the Unitarian Universalists).
Finally, history is written by the victor. With the emergence of a Unitarianized version of Universalism in the twentieth century (a more rational, humanized ethos), Pietism suffered from either benign neglect or outright hostility, because it represented to some a relic from the past. What some view as a relic from the past, others see as a treasure. Therein is the final irony: what some have rejected may become the cornerstone of the renewal of Unitarian Universalism as it enters a new century.
Philip Jacob Spener hoped to reform his church from within. But out of his movement arose Separatists or Radical Pietists who believed that instead it was necessary to form new religious communities.
One of the earliest and most influential of these radicals was Gottfried Arnold, who preached a mystical form of Christianity, contrasting those who had experienced a mystical union with Christ with those in the institutional church. If a believer had direct access to God, what need would there be for the mediation of church tradition or sacred text? It is at this point of "private interpretation" that later critics of Pietism insisted that it led to the dissolution of church authority and the notion of individualism. In The Rise and Fall of American Lutheran Pietism, for example, Paul Kuenning points out that Lutherans neglected Pietism for so long because they focused on its separatist branch, forgetting the classical form that was non-separatist, churchly, and reformist (Kuenning 1988, 3).
Though there are diverse and sometimes bewildering strains in Separatist Pietism (e.g., dreams, trances, near-death experiences), many Separatists shared four general themes according to F. Ernest Stoefflers Continental Pietism and Early American Christianity: a deeply personal, transforming experience of God; house-churches established on the early New Testament church model; an aversion to theology and dogma and a faith in the power of the Spirit to lead people, related to their belief that they were ushering in the restitution of the true church; and a joyful anticipation of the Second Coming and the Restitution of All Things (apokatastasis), which is a major part of Universalist theology (Stoeffler 1976, 164-165).
George de Benneville was not only a man remarkably ahead of his age, but a Pietist who had contact with European Pietists in Germany and Holland. His journal mentions his close relationship with Pietist Count de Marsey (1688-1752). Because so much of de Bennevilles later life was rooted in Pennsylvania, it is important to highlight some of his religious environment, which one German writer, Albert D. Bell, identified in these terms: "In Pennsylvania, we have many religious opinions, but only one religion: the Pennsylvania religion of go a little, give a little, live and let live."(Bell, The Life and Times of Dr. George de Benneville, 1953, 31).
E. Digby Baltzell, in Puritan Boston and Quaker Phila-delphia, describes Pennsylvania as an "ethnic and religious melting pot," fostering "egalitarian individualism," in contrast to Bostons more homogeneous community and "hierarchical commun-alism"(Baltzell 1979, 115). William Penns policy of religious toleration helped to bring to the region an array of groups, many of whom had suffered persecution in Europe: Dutch and German Reformed, Dunkers, Moravians, Schwenkfelders, Swedish and German Lutherans, Mennonites, Quakers, and others. By 1740, there were three major groups of immigrants: English, Germans, and Scotch-Irish. Although these groups intermingled, one Pennsylvania historian describes the early colony in these terms:
The simplest way to describe the population of colonial Pennsylvania is to picture a stake driven into the ground at the waterfront of Philadelphia. A 25-mile radius from this peg would encompass the area of Pennsylvania settled mainly by English immigrants between 1680 and 1710. Extend the radius to the length of 75 miles, and the outer 50 miles of the circle would correspond roughly to the "Dutch" country from Northampton to York Counties. Here, from 1710 to 1750, the German-speaking immigrants to colonial Pennsylvania made their homes. Again, extend the radius to 150 miles, and in the outermost circumference, corresponding roughly to the arc of the Allegheny Mountains and valleys, the Scotch Irish settled from 1717 to the Revolutionary War (Baltzell l979, 116).
Though the lines between various groups might be blurred, the picture is different from the more or less homogeneous confines of Massachusetts. Pennsylvania was a colony founded on the principle of religious toleration. Ben Franklin once asked Michael Wohlfahrt, a follower of Conrad Beissel, why his group did not publish their confession of faith. In words strikingly familiar to contemporary Unitarian Universalists, Wohlfahrt responded: "We are not sure that we have arrived at the end of this progression ... and we fear that if we should once print our confession of faith, we should feel ourselves as if bound and confined to it, and perhaps be unwilling to receive further improvement...." Franklin commented, "This modesty in a sect is perhaps a singular instance in the history of mankind, every other sect supposing itself in possession of all truth, and that those who differ are so far in the wrong" (Bell 1953, 31).
Yet Pennsylvania was also a battleground for winning converts, as new religious groups sought to establish their turf. No matter the religious tradition, clergy were in short supply. According to Stephen Longneckers The Christopher Sauers, in 1740 there were only three German Reformed pastors for twenty-seven congregations (Longnecker 1981, 96). Most congregations depended on Europe for pastors, except for some of the Separatist Pietists, who started house churches without ordained clergy.
What set the early development of religious groups apart in Pennsylvania was that the free-wheeling sects seemed better equipped than some of the established European church groups. Many of these sects came in groups; once here, they helped others come. Nor did they wait to have clergy to start their churches; many of their lay ministers supported themselves in other ways. Hence, as Longnecker notes, "A sectarian congregation could get rolling as soon as it organized and elected officers... "(Longnecker 1981, 98). A modern-day version of the sectarian congregations is the Unitarian Universalist fellowship movement, a network of free-wheeling, often anti-clerical, small groups started in the 1940s.
Clear connections existed between German Pietists and other sects in the Pennsylvania Colony. When William Penn and other Quakers gained control of West New Jersey in 1677, for example, they offered sanctuary to other Separatists from Germany and Holland. In 1726, 100 German Pietists emigrated from Wittenstein, Germany, to the Oley Valley of Pennsylvania, where de Benneville later was to settle. Longnecker cites that many of this group "hold the gospel of the Friends concerning the internal revelation of the Gospel. They hold, with the Dunkers, the doctrine of universal salvation" (Longnecker 1981, 76). It is little wonder, therefore, that when de Benneville arrived in the Oley Valley he was welcomed or that his journals are kept in the Schwenkfelder Library. The Separatist Pietists concentrated their settlements in the Oley Valley (now Berks County), and the Perkiomen Valley (now Montgomery County), in land provided by the Society of Friends.
"For such a humble, pious, loving man I have scarcely ever seen in my pilgrimage through life," said the Rev. Elhanan Winchester of the first Universalist congregation in Philadelphia. Occasionally, Winchester accompanied George de Benneville on missionary tours. A summary of de Bennevilles life, as told by Winchester, appears in Some Remarkable Passages in the Life of Dr. George de Benneville:
Dr. de Benneville was born in London, England (July, 1703). He came of French Huguenot stock, and was the son of George de Benneville and Marie Granville, of Rouen, Normandy, France. In Dr. de Bennevilles story of his life no reference is made to his scientific studies in Germany. Yet... he was zealously devoted to scientific study, including the branch of medicine.
Following divine direction, he emigrated to America in 1741. The first person to greet him upon his arrival in the country of his adoption was Christopher Sauer, known in Germantown annuals as a printer and publisher.
Dr. de Benneville settled in Oley [Berks County], Pennsylvania, established himself as a physician, and began to preach the doctrine of Universal Restoration. Here he intermarried the Bertolette family... . About this time he built a large and substantial dwelling, in which a room was set apart for Christian worship; here, until his removal to Germantown, Pennsylvania, he lived and preached...the hopeful tenets of Universalism.
Dr. de Benneville preached the gospel and prac-ticed medicine, not only in Pennsylvania, in which he traveled extensively among the Indian tribes, but his active ministrations extended into Dela-ware, Maryland, and Virginia. About 1757, he re-moved to Germantown (Winchester 1890, 45-49).
Although some of de Bennevilles writings remain, by and large it was the influence of the mannot his worksthat stood out, a factor that corresponds to the Pietist notion that a living Christianity is more important than a doctrinal one. Indeed, the transcription on a silver knife and fork presented to the family might serve as a motto for Dr de Bennevilles life: "Who trusts in God has built well. Who lives well, dies well" (Bell 1953, n.p.).
The deepest dimension of de Bennevilles life was spiritual; he was, in Winchesters words, "in fullest sense, a prayerful man" (Winchester 1890, 57). His spirituality expressed itself in daily life: the study of the Bible; keeping notes of his life; family devotionals; and preaching in his small Pietistic house church. He was, as were many Pietists, concerned with the inward person; he wrote in contemporary terms, "The Inner Spirit makes men feel that behind every appearance of diversity there is an interdependent unity of all things..." (Bell 1953, n.p.). He believed that every person carried two natures, an inner and an outer. The outer person is mortal, limited, concerned with the visible world. The inner person is spiritual, subject to sin, but capable of a relationship with God.
The theology beneath this spirituality was both Christian and Universalist. De Benneville wrote:
Our faith is essentially the combined faith of all Christians and instead of increasing the divided churches, it is to bring them all into one, as truth alone grants... Glorious truths are found in every church and nation under the sun. And this glorious chain of truth which some believe will someday unite all of them into one form of love (Bell 1953, 62).
De Benneville believed in and lived the theology of universal salvation. His words echo this theme:
Preach the Universal and Everlasting Gospel of Boundless, Universal Love for the entire human race, without exception, and for each one in particular... . Proclaim and publish to the people of the world a Universal Gospel that shall restore, in time, all the human species without exception.
He will restore all his creatures, without exception, to the praise of His glory... . My happiness will be incomplete while one creature remains miserable ... (Bell 1953, n.p.).
De Benneville based his theology of universal theology on the Scriptures; indeed, it is reported that he helped Christopher Sauer produce the first German-language Bible, and in so doing, put the biblical passages that justified universal salvation in red type! Yet, as a Pietist, de Benneville believed that right living was just as important as right believing and his life mirrored this belief. He befriended the local Native American tribes and spoke to them of their "Great Spirit" as his own. His house church was truly ecumenical, inviting preachers of various persuasions to speak. And when he established a family burial plot in the Germantown section of Philadelphia he permitted British soldiers to be buried there during the Revolutionary War when no one else would allow it.
De Benneville believed it was his obligation to share the faith of universal salvation. Thus he journeyed not only throughout Germany, Holland, and France, but also to Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia. After settling in the Oley Valley he made frequent trips to Philadelphia and to the Ephrata Cloisters.
As with many Separatist preachers, de Bennevilles chief occupation was not as minister, but as physician and sometimes teacher. He understood the interconnections between body and spirit. Six or seven of his remaining medical volumes contain notes on his practice that essentially deal with domestic medicine, "primitive medicine"herbal remedies, some of which he learned from Native American healers. When he moved to Philadelphia around 1758 he opened an apothecary shop in connection with his practice and his sons were trained in medicine. His medical journals translate various native American herbal remedies into English or German to use with his patients.
Although Pietism is criticized for being excessively inward, to the neglect of the world, such cannot be said of de Benneville. His ministry to neighboring Native Americans is especially interesting. He said he had learned as much about botany from the Native Americans as he had taught them. He preached among them the "Great Spirits" love for all humanity, declaring in language reminiscent of Joseph Campbell that "all symbols of the same truth are equally valid..." (Bell 1953, n.p.).
In dealing with Native Americans or other religious faiths, de Benneville tried to live out the requirements of his faith that the purpose of life was to work with the Creator in the salvation of all humanity and that while a single person remained outside that love, no one should rest easily. He did not have much regard for persons who defended the language of their faith without living it. "God judges men by their deeds," he wrote, "and not their creeds. The language of eternal love is expressed in actions. These speak more than words..." (Bell 1953, n.p.). The deeds of the orthodox, he felt, were often unchristian. "What wrangling, strife, schism, hate, envy, bitterness, murder and manslaughter, persecutions and wars! How much innocent blood was shed on account of factiousness among religions!" (Bell 1953, n.p.).
God is love. These three words might describe the heart of de Bennevilles theology; faith, and the reason he believed that no person was beyond this God, whom he sometimes called "Our Sovereign Good" or "Infinite and Everlasting Love" (Bell 1953, n.p.). He wrote these remarkable words:
The spirit of Love will be intensified to Godly proportions when reciprocal love exists between the entire human race and each of its individual members. That love must be based upon mutual respect for the differences in color, language, and worship, even as we appreciate and accept with gratitude the differences that tend to unite the male and female of all species. We do not find those differences to be obstacles to love (Bell 1953, n.p.).
In the twentieth century, the oldest spiritual traditions of UniversalismChristian and Pietisticdeclined steadily in influence as Unitarianism and Universalism moved toward an uneasy consolidation in 1961 as the Unitarian Universalist Association. The reasons for this decline are numerous and complex, but of particular interest are the following: as the movement became increasingly pluralistic, the Pietist roots were neglected; responding to the rise of secular humanism, the older Christian, Pietistic roots seemed out of place; and the consolidation of the two movements in 1961 was uneventhe much stronger Unitarian movement tended to dominate, while the Universalists were submerged. The result was the emergence of a sometimes theistic, sometimes humanist religion, with a stronger connection to the Enlightenment faith of reason than the Pietist faith of the heart. Finally, both Unitarians and Universalists had headquarters in Boston; hence, the mid-Atlantic expressions of the religion, particularly its Pietist roots, were forgotten.